Marketing is both an art and a science that involves creating, delivering, and promoting products or services that meet the needs and desires of customers. The classic marketing mix, first introduced by Professor James Culliton of Harvard University in 1948 and later expanded upon by Jerome McCarthy, is a fundamental theory in the industry that has been used for over 70 years. The marketing mix includes four key elements: Product, Price, Placement, and Promotion. Over time, this theory has evolved to encompass the 7 P’s of marketing.

  1. Product
  2. Price
  3. Place
  4. Promotion
  5. People
  6. Process
  7. Physical evidence

The 7 P’s of marketing are carefully crafted strategies and practices companies use to drive business and effectively promote their products. This article will provide a comprehensive overview of each of the 7 P’s of marketing and offer guidance on using them effectively.

1. Product

As a business owner or marketer, it’s essential to understand that your customers care about one thing: what your product or service can do for them. This is why product-led marketing has become a popular approach in recent years. By focusing on creating the best possible product, you can provide value to your customers and differentiate yourself from your competitors.

Conducting market research is vital to enhancing your product and marketing campaign. When evaluating the product aspect of your marketing mix, it is crucial to consider all the different components that constitute your product. These elements include:

  • Design.
  • Quality.
  • Features.
  • Options.
  • Packaging.
  • Market Positioning.


By carefully considering each of these elements, you can create a product that meets your customers’ needs and desires and sets your brand apart in a crowded marketplace.

2. Price

Pricing is a crucial element of any marketing strategy, as it directly impacts a business’s profitability, sales volume, and customer perception. Setting the right price for a product requires businesses to take various factors into account, such as production costs, competition, and perceived value.

Before setting a price, businesses must understand their product’s value to customers. This involves understanding the target audience’s needs and wants, buying behavior, and willingness to pay for the product. Conducting market research and competitor analysis can help businesses determine a reasonable price point.

When setting a price, businesses should consider the following factors:

  • Perceived value: The product’s perceived value determines how much customers are willing to pay for it. Businesses need to identify the value the product provides to customers and price it accordingly.
  • Production and distribution costs: Businesses must ensure that their product is priced to cover their production and distribution costs. This includes raw materials, manufacturing, shipping, and marketing costs.
  • Competition: The pricing strategy should be competitive with other similar products in the market. Businesses should consider the prices of their competitors’ products when setting their own prices.

By carefully considering the key factors of perceived value, production and distribution costs, and competition, you can set a fair and competitive price that will help you stand out in a crowded market and build a strong reputation with your customers.

3. Place

Place, also known as distribution, determines how and where customers can access a product. It involves carefully selecting channels and locations where the product will be available to customers, whether online or in physical stores.

When selecting the right place for a product, businesses must consider several key factors, including where customers are most likely to look for the product, whether customers need to touch and feel the product before purchasing, and the most effective channels for marketing the product to customers.

For instance, businesses must decide whether to market directly to customers from their own e-commerce website or whether buyers will be looking for them on third-party marketplaces. Additionally, businesses must determine whether they want to interact directly with customers during the purchase process or delegate customer service issues to a third party.

By thoughtfully selecting the right place for your product, you can make it easy for customers to find and purchase it, improving customer satisfaction, and ultimately, increasing your sales and profitability.

4. Promotion

Promotion is the part of the marketing mix that the public notices most and plays a significant role in shaping their perception of a brand. It encompasses a broad range of channels, including television and print advertising, content marketing, coupons or scheduled discounts, social media strategies, email marketing, display ads, digital strategies, marketing communication, search engine marketing, public relations, and anything else you can possibly think of.

All these promotional channels tie the whole marketing mix together to create an omnichannel strategy that provides a seamless and consistent experience for the customer. This cohesive approach helps to strengthen the brand’s messaging and increase the effectiveness of its marketing efforts.

5. People

The people behind a business are essential to its success, playing a crucial role in the creation and delivery of a product or service. Therefore, it is crucial to consider the human element when developing a marketing strategy. This component involves a wide range of factors, such as developing employees’ skills to carry out the marketing mix strategy effectively, fostering a company culture that aligns with the brand’s personality, hiring skilled professionals to design and develop products or services, and prioritizing customer relationship management to foster genuine connections and inspire customer loyalty on a personal level.

By investing in their employees and creating a positive company culture, businesses can ensure that their people significantly impact their customers, increasing brand loyalty and driving long-term success. Hiring professionals with the necessary skills and experience to create and develop high-quality products or services is another crucial factor that can make all the difference. Finally, prioritizing customer relationship management is essential to building lasting connections with customers, which can drive repeat business and positive word-of-mouth referrals.

6. Process

To create an exceptional customer journey, businesses must prioritize designing seamless, efficient, and customer-friendly processes. Achieving this requires a deep understanding of the customer journey, from initial inquiry to purchase, to identify which processes need to be in place to ensure a positive experience.

Effective process design involves considering critical factors such as response times to inquiries, scheduling of sales meetings, order fulfillment procedures, and generating post-purchase reviews. By optimizing these processes, businesses can create a positive customer experience that fosters loyalty and drives long-term success.

Leveraging technology is also essential for streamlining and improving processes, allowing businesses to automate and digitize routine tasks, freeing up staff time to focus on delivering exceptional customer service.

7. Physical Evidence

Physical evidence is a critical element of the marketing mix because it provides tangible cues about the quality of experience a company offers. It is particularly useful in scenarios where customers need reassurance before making a purchase or paying for a service that has not been delivered yet.

In the case of a restaurant, physical evidence can manifest in various forms, such as the ambiance, decor, staff uniforms, menus, and online reviews, which all contribute to shaping the customer’s perception of the dining experience.

For service-based companies like agencies, the website is a valuable source of physical evidence showcasing the company’s credentials through testimonials, case studies, and contracts that clearly outline the services customers can expect to receive. Having a website that accurately reflects the brand and offers a user-friendly experience is crucial, which is why hiring a professional web designer for your business website is worthwhile.

Final Takeaway

The marketing mix and the 7 Ps of marketing provide a framework for developing a marketing strategy or outreach campaign. These guidelines assist in covering all aspects of brand outreach and enable us to distinguish ourselves from competitors by providing offerings that cater to customer needs — the ultimate goal of marketing.

About Millennium

Millennium Agency is a nationally recognized, top woman led B2B branding, positioning, and digital marketing firm who creates value that builds emotionally impactful brands that influences your customer’s buying decision, giving you the competitive advantage. As your industry partner for B2B pharma/biotech, technology and manufacturing, our proprietary research-based framework makes a strong impact and accelerates your brand growth. While you focus on what you do best – running your business successfully – our team will build your brand, and drive leads. With a 25-year history of creating inspiring brands, impactful messaging, and strong marketing execution, Millennium Agency is the perfect partner to help craft an effective marketing strategy that leverages the 7 P’s of marketing.

Schedule a meeting with me at to learn more.